There’s exciting news coming out of the Mariana Trench’s mind-boggling depths. Deep sea explorers discovered a snailfish species living more than five miles — FIVE MILES! – deep in the Mariana Trench. It has been named the Pseudoliparis swirei, and according to this National Geographic article, “…scientists suspect they are unlikely to ever find a fish that lives much deeper.”
But it’s the deep sea, the least-explored part of our earth, so who can imagine what else marine researchers may find. As University of Washington marine biologist Mackenzie Gerringer notes,
“We think of it as a harsh environment because it’s extreme for us, but there’s a whole group of organisms that are very happy down there,” said lead researcher Mackenzie Gerringer, a marine biologist at the University of Washington. Further research in these depths may yield even more weird discoveries. “There are a lot of surprises waiting.”
“Only the ocean remains as the last great unexplored portion of our globe; so it is to the sea that man must turn to meet the last great challenge of exploration this side of outer space.” –Deep Challenge (1966) by H. B. Stewart
Marine biologist David Gallo brings the mind-bending world of ocean exploration alive in his latest talk about the fascinating and largely unexplored undersea world. As he notes, “Today we’ve only explored about 3 percent of what’s out there in the ocean. Already we’ve found the world’s highest mountains, the world’s deepest valleys, underwater lakes, underwater waterfalls … . There’s still 97 percent, and either that 97 percent is empty or just full of surprises.”
Watch this – it’s entrancing:
Gallo and his team, NOAA’s Ocean Explorer teams, Dr. Edith Widder, and so many more, are among those who’ve been exploring the oceans’ depths for years. This year is a pivotal time in deep sea exploration – with James Cameron’s DeepSea Challenge, Richard Branson’s Virgin Oceanic and Dr. Sylvia Earle’s DOER marine all aiming to explore at the ocean’s deepest point – the fabled Mariana Trench. Before James Cameron reached the bottom of the Trench last month, there had been a 52 year drought — only Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh had done it before — in 1960.
With this ocean-oriented race to the bottom, we’re surely on the brink of vast and astonishing discoveries of life in the least-hospitable, oxygen-starved depths of our planet.
Another fascinating creature of the deep ocean. This one, the barreleye (Macropinna microstoma), also called the “spookfish” for obvious reasons, provides plenty of mystery for scientists to unravel.
When researchers at MBARI sent ROVs to deep waters off the coast of California a couple years ago, they believe they solved the half-century question of what this fish’s tubular eyes can do (the eyes are the greenish half-orbs pointed up, not the two dark spots on the front of the fish’s ‘face’ – it’s wild – watch the video). They also discovered a new feature of its remarkable head:
“…its eyes are surrounded by a transparent, fluid-filled shield that covers the top of the fish’s head. Most existing descriptions and illustrations of this fish do not show its fluid-filled shield, probably because this fragile structure was destroyed when the fish were brought up from the deep in nets.”
What will future research reveal about about this intriguing fish?
A favorite sea phenomenon – bioluminescence, or the living lights of the ocean.
Kick back and enjoy a moment of deep sea wonder in this holiday season:
It never gets old for many, including Dr. Edith Widder, who studies bioluminescence in sea creatures:
“During my first open ocean dive, I went down to 800 feet and turned out the lights. I knew I would see bioluminescence, but I was totally unprepared for how much. It was incredible! There were explosions of light everywhere, like being in the middle of a silent fireworks display.”
Wired is featuring a terrific resurrection of this exciting ocean exploration story –
“Fifty-one years ago this Sunday, Swiss engineer Jacques Piccard and Navy oceanographer Don Walsh descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, seven miles below the sea’s surface. It’s the lowest point on Earth, and deeper than any human had gone before — or since.”
It looks like a molar tooth drenched in gold, or maybe a metallic mylar birthday balloon. But this is a bathypelagic ctenophore, photographed near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of the Atlantic Ocean. The ‘bathypelagic zone’ is the layer of the ocean about 3,000 – 13,000 feet deep, sometimes called “The Midnight Zone”, because there is no light at these depths.
Ctenophores are known to many as comb jellyfish – they have eight rows of cilia that look like combs, which they use to move through the sea. Researchers say this one anchors to the seafloor with its tentacles.
Researchers collaborating on the Census of Marine Life returned from an expedition to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, brimming with findings of new creatures, reporting on unexpected abundance of some already-known creatures, and sharing stunning photos (like this one) with the world.
“This expedition has revolutionised our thinking about deep-sea life in the Atlantic Ocean. It shows that we cannot just study what lives around the edges of the ocean and ignore the vast array of animals living on the slopes and valleys in the middle of the Ocean,” said Professor Monty Priede, Director of the University of Aberdeen’s Oceanlab.
As we’ve blogged, the site of the BP oil disaster has been explored and mapped to some degree by NOAA – some of it funded by the Minerals Management Service.
During last fall’s deepwater expedition in the area, researchers were energized by the forests of deepwater Lophelia they found – it’s a type of coral that can be a vital foundation species to the health of the oceans. But much remains (remained?) to be discovered at depth there.